Yes. Vintage clothing and the like are still kind of new concepts, so don't expect to pay Salvation-Army prices. That said, you can expect some really bonkers gear. Beyoglu is riddled with them, but the best ones can be found in the stretch between Tunnel square and Galata tower.
If you are looking for more upscale vintage, and/or furniture or old records, check out the backstreets of Cihangir. Aga Hamam Sk, starting from the old mosque in the neighborhood center and ending on Istiklal is the best. For the curious, there is also a fantastic pickle store and a strange store that seems to sell only fake inventions (handshake machines, electric eyeglasses and the like).